September 1850 two treaties were negotiated and signed at Bowiting, known as Sault Ste. Marie The Robinson Superior Treaty Sept 7, 1850 The Robinson Huron Treaty Sept 9, 1850
The British Crown saw treaties as a way to legalize the ceding of Indian lands to clear the way for European settlement, mining, and railways. Treaties were intended to extinguish all First Nations claims and rights to their land forever, except in those lands set apart as Reserves of land for the bands to live on. Treaties were also expected to be the first step towards assimilation.
Provide for the survival of their people and for future generations in a changing world
• Sum of two thousand pounds of good and lawful money of Upper Canada, equivalent to CAD $3,322 today • For the further perpetual annuity of five hundred pounds • Robinson Superior Treaty settlement was used to persuade the Huron Nations • Area from the Northern Shore of Lake Superior from Pigeon River to Batchawana Bay
• Sum of two thousand pounds of good and lawful money of Upper Canada (equivalent to CAD $3,322 today) • Perpetual annuity of six hundred pounds of money to be paid and delivered to the Chiefs and their Tribes at a convenient season of each year (equivalent to CAD $997 today) • The bands were given a one-time payment of ₤2,160 distributed amongst themselves, and an annual payment of ₤600 to each band. • Reservations, agreed to, shall be held and occupied by the Chiefs and their Tribes for their own use and benefit.
• Signing at Bowiting, aka Sault Ste. Marie • 17 signatories, Chiefs and Principal men from their tribes • One of the signatories was noted Anishnaabeg Chief Shinguakonse (Little Pine) (1773-1854), veteran of the War of 1812 • The Crown was represented by Honorable William Benjamin Robinson • The territory described includes the land east of Georgian Bay and the northern shore of Lake Huron.
Language Differences • English used ‘legalese’: “Sum of two thousand pounds of good and lawful money of Upper Canada” Chiefs used metaphorical language “As long as the sun shines, the grass grows, as long as the rivers flow downhill, and as long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.” 2nd Hand Interpretation • Speaker to translator to recorder
• Freely, and voluntarily surrender, cede, grant, and convey unto Her Majesty, her heirs and successors forever, all their right, title, and interest to, and in the whole of, the territory
The land was still theirs based on their Inherent right and to protect Mother Earth, also owned: • The resources, grass, minerals • The fish • The game/animalsWe the Original people of this land know the Creator put us here. The Creator gave us laws to live in harmony with nature and mankind. The Laws of the Creator defined our rights & responsibilities. The Creator gave us spiritual beliefs, our languages, our culture, and a place on Mother Earth which provided us with all our needs.
• Rights to hunt, fish, trap and gather • Designated land to live and gather as tribes • Compensation • Annual annuities • Share benefits from the resources
• 10₤ per head by way of annuity • Large reserve tract • Secure half breeds a free grant of 100 acres (for fighting as an ally in the War of 1812)
1. Crown agrees to pay a perpetual annuity 2. Reservations shall be held and occupied by the Chiefs and their tribes and respective tribes in common for their own use and benefit 3. Should the Chiefs and respective tribes at any time desire to dispose of any part of their reservations, or any mineral or other valuable production, these will be sold or leased at their request by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs
• The signatories did not agree that the treaty making process would takeover the control of Indigenous nationhood and governance.
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